Family & Consumer Sciences

Fat Saver Guide

Use this chart for tasty low fat substitutes of everyday ingredients. Many small changes can make a big difference. Making lower fat substitutions just twice a week for a year could result in weight loss and health gains!

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Fat Substitute Fat gm saved/ serving # lost/year
Butter, margarine, and oil 1 tbsp butter or margarine 1 tbsp apple sauce or pureed prunes 11 1 ¾
1 tbsp butter or margarine 1 tbsp all fruit preserves 11 1 ½
2 tbsp oil for sautéing 2 tbsp broth for sautéing 28 6 ¾
1 tbsp butter or margarine 2 seconds of cooking oil spray 14 3 ½
1 tbsp butter or margarine 1 tbsp reduced calorie margarine 5 1 ½
Sauces & Condiments 2 tbsp regular salad dressing 2 tbsp nonfat salad dressing 14 3 ½
1 tbsp mayonnaise 1 tbsp nonfat mayonnaise 12 2 ½
1 tbsp mayonnaise 1 tbsp nonfat yogurt 11 2
1 tbsp butter or margarine 1 tbsp salsa 11 2 ¾
Dairy ½ cup regular ricotta cheese ½ cup nonfat ricotta cheese 16 4
2 tbsp heavy whipping cream 2 tbsp evaporated skim milk 10 2 ¼
2 tbsp regular cream cheese 2 tbsp nonfat cream cheese 10 2
1 ounce regular full fat cheese 1 ounce nonfat cheese 9 2
1 ounce regular full fat cheese 1 ounce reduced fat cheese 4 1
1 cup whole milk 1 cup fat free skim milk 8 1 ¾
1 cup whole milk yogurt 1 cup nonfat yogurt 7 ½
2 tbsp regular sour cream 2 tbsp nonfat sour cream 5 1 ¼
½ cup whole milk cottage cheese ¼ cup nonfat cottage cheese 4 1
Meat & Poultry 3 ounces ground beef 3 ounces ground skinless turkey breast 16
3 ounces ground beef 3 ounces veggie burger crumbles 14 4 ½
1 regular hot dog 1 fat free vegetarian hot dog 16 4
2 slices regular bologna 2 slices fat free turkey bologna 16 4
1 ounce regular ham 1 ounce fat free ham 6 2

lt in weight loss and health gains!

Distributed by Elizabeth C. Shephard
2000 Food & Health Communications, Inc.

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Fruit and Vegetable Substitutions

Have your heart set on that favorite recipe, but you don't have the right fruit or vegetable on hand? Use this handy chart to find substitutions

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Recipe Item Quantity Substitution
Lemon Juice 1 tsp. ½ teaspoon vinegar (not balsamic)
Lemon 1 medium 2-3 tablespoons juice plus 2 teaspoons grated rind
Lemon peel, dried 1 tsp.
1 medium
2 teaspoons grated lemon rind, or ½ teaspoon lemon extract
6-8 tablespoons juice
Mushrooms. fresh 1 pound 1 (8 ounce) can sliced mushrooms, drained, or 3 ounces dried mushroom, rehydrated
Orange peel, dried 1 tbsp.
2 tsp.
1 tablespoon grated fresh orange peel, or 1 ½ teaspoons orange extract
1 teaspoon orange extract
Orange 1 medium ½ cup juice plus 2 tablespoons grated rind
Orange rind 1 medium 2 to 3 tablespoons rind
Onion, chopped 1/4 cup 1 tablespoon instant minced
Pepper, sweet red or green, chopped 3 tbsp. 1 tablespoon dried sweet red or green pepper flakes
Sweet red, chopped 3 tbsp. 2 tablespoons chopped pimiento
Shallots, chopped 3 2 tablespoons chopped onion plus 1 tablespoon chopped garlic
Tomato juice 1 cup ½ cup tomato sauce plus ½ cup
water
Tomatoes, Fresh 2 cups, chopped 1 (16 ounce) can (may need to
drain)
Tomato Sauce 2 cups ¾ cup tomato paste plus 1 cup
water

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Ingredient Substitutions

Have you ever been all set to prepare a food and suddenly discover one of the ingredients in your recipe is missing? Sometimes it isn’t convenient to run out and purchase the items needed. The chart below gives substitutes that may be used to get a finished product that closely resembles the original. We suggest using the substitutions only in unexpected situations because recipe results may vary.

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Ingredient Amount Substitute
Baking Powder 1 teaspoon ¼ teaspoon soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus ¼ teaspoon cornstarch, or
¼ teaspoon baking soda plus ½ cup sour milk or butter milk (decrease liquid called for in recipe by ½ cup), or
¼ teaspoon baking soda plus ½ tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make ½ cup (decrease liquid called for in recipe by ½ cup), or
¼ teaspoon baking soda plus ¼ to ½ cup molasses
Bread Crumbs, Dry 1/3 cup 1 slice bread
Bread Crumbs, Soft ¾ cup 1 slice bread
Butter 1 cup 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat plus ½ teaspoon salt, or
7/8 cup oil plus ½ teaspoon salt, or
7/8 cup lard plus ½ teaspoon salt, or 1 cup margarine
Chocolate Chips, Semisweet 1 ounce 1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate
Chocolate, Semisweet 1 2/3 ounces Ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 4 teaspoons sugar
Chocolate, Semisweet Pieces, Melted 6 ounce package 2 squares unsweetened chocolate plus 2 tablespoons shortening and ½ cup sugar
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 ounce or square 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine
Cocoa ¼ cup or 4 tablespoons 1 ounce (square) chocolate and omit ½ tablespoon fat
Corn Syrup 1 cup 1 cup sugar plus ¼ cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in recipe)
Cornstarch (for thickening) 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour, or
2 tablespoons, or 4 teaspoons quick cooking tapioca
Cracker Crumbs ¾ cup 1 cup bread crumbs
Cream, Half-and-Half 1 cup 7/8 cup milk plus ½ tablespoon butter
Cream, Heavy (36-40% fat) 1 cup About ¾ cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter (for use in cooking and baking)
Cream, Sour 1 cup 3 tablespoons butter plus 7/8 cup sour milk, or
7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 tablespoons butter
Cream, Whipped Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk for 12 hours. Add 1 teaspoon lemon juice. Whip until stiff
Egg 1 whole (3 tablespoons) 3 tablespoons slightly beaten egg, or
3 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon thawed frozen egg, or
2 ½ tablespoons sifted dry whole egg powder plus 2 ½ tablespoons lukewarm water, or
2 yolks plus 1 tablespoon water (in cookies), or
2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixtures)
Egg 1 + Cornstarch 1 Tablespoon 3 eggs
Egg Whites 1 white (2 tablespoons) 2 tablespoons frozen egg white, or
2 teaspoons sifted dry egg white powder plus 2 tablespoons water
Egg yolk 1 yolk (1 ½ tablespoons) 2 tablespoons sifted dry egg yolk powder plus 2 teaspoons water, or 1 1/3 tablespoons frozen egg yolk
Flour, All-Purpose (for thickening) 1 tablespoon ½ tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, or 1 teaspoon arrowroot starch, or
1 tablespoon granular tapioca, or
2 to 3 teaspoons quick cooking tapioca, or
1 whole egg, 2 egg whites, or 2 egg yolks, or
2 tablespoons granular cereal, or
1 tablespoon waxy rice flour, or
1 tablespoon waxy corn flour, or
2 tablespoons browned flour, or
1 ½ tablespoons whole-wheat flour, or ½ tablespoon whole wheat plus ½ tablespoon all-purpose flour
Flour, All-Purpose 1 cup sifted 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons sifted cake flour, or
1 cup unsifted all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons, or
1 ½ cups bread crumbs, or
1 cup rolled oats, or
1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour plus 2/3 cup all purpose flour, or
½ cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, rye flour, or whole wheat flour, plus ½ cup all purpose flour, or
¾ cup bran or whole wheat flour plus ¼ cup all purpose flour, or
1 cup rye or rice flour, or
¼ cup soybean flour plus ¾ cup all-purpose flour
Flour, Cake 1 cup sifted 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour
Flour, Whole Wheat substitute whole wheat flour for ¼ of white, wheat flour called for in recipe
Gelatin, Flavored 3 ounce package 1 tablespoon plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice
Honey 1 cup 1 ½ cups sugar plus ¼ cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe)
Macaroni (4 cups cooked) 2 cups, uncooked 2 cups spaghetti, uncooked, or 4 cups noodles, uncooked
Marshmallows, Miniature 1 cup 10 large
Milk, Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup yogurt
Milk, Buttermilk or Sour 1 cup 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice and enough milk to make 1 cup, or
1 cup sweet milk plus 1 ¾ teaspoons cream of tartar
Milk, Evaporated ½ cup plus ½ cup water 1 cup liquid whole milk
Milk, skim 1 cup 4 to 5 tablespoons non-fat dry milk powder plus enough ice water to make one cup, or follow manufacturer’s directions
Milk, Skim ¼ cup 4 teaspoons non-fat dry milk powder plus water to make ¼ cup, follow manufacturer’s directions
Milk, Skim 1/3 cup 2 tablespoons non-fat dry milk powder plus water to make 1/3 cup, or follow manufacturer’s directions
Milk, Sweetened Condensed 1 can (about1 1/3 cup) 1/3 cup plus 2 tablespoons evaporated milk, plus 1 cup sugar, plus 2 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons butter. Heat until sugar and butter are dissolved, or
1/3 cup evaporated milk, plus ¾ cup sugar, plus 2 tablespoons butter. Heat until sugar and butter are dissolver, or
Add 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry milk to ½ cup warm water. Mix well. Add ¾ cup sugar and stir until smooth.
Milk, Whole 1 cup 1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk plus 2 ½ teaspoons butter or margarine, or
½ cup evaporated milk plus ½ cup water, or
Milk, Whole 4 tablespoons whole dry milk plus 1 cup water or follow manufacturer’s directions, or
1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water in baking, or
¼ cup non-fat dry milk plus 7/8 cup water plus 2 teaspoons butter
Shortening, Melted 1 cup 1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should not be substituted if recipe does not call for melted shortening)
Sugar, White 1 teaspoon 1/8 teaspoon noncaloric sweetener solution or follow manufacturer’s directions
Sugar, White 1 cup 1 cup corn syrup minus ¼ cup of liquid in recipe, or 1 1/3 cup molasses minus 1/3 cup of liquid in recipe, or
1 cup powdered sugar, or
1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed, or
1 cup honey and reduce liquid in recipe by ¼ cup, or
1 ¾ cup confectioners sugar, packed, or
1 cup molasses, plus ¼ to ½ teaspoon soda. Omit baking powder.
Brown Sugar, firmly packed 1 cup 1 cup sugar plus 2 tablespoons molasses
Tapioca, Granular 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons pearl tapioca
Tapioca, Granular 2 teaspoons 1 tablespoon flour
Yeast, Active Dry 1 tablespoon 1 cake, compressed, or 1 package (1/4 oz) active dry yeast

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Miscellaneous Substitutions

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Ingredient Amount Substitute
Broth, beef or chicken, canned broth 1 cup 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water, or
1 teaspoon powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
Powdered broth base 1 teaspoon 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water, or 1 cup canned or homemade broth
Chili Sauce 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce plus, ¼ cup brown sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar, ¼ teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground cloves plus dash of ground allspice ½ cup sugar and 2 tablespoons vinegar (for use in cooking)
Ketchup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, ½ cup sugar, plus 2 tablespoons vinegar (for cooking)
Mayonnaise, for salads and dressing 1 cup ½ cup plain yogurt plus ½ cup mayonnaise, or
1 cup sour cream, or
1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
Rice (3 cups cooked) 1 cup 1 cup uncooked converted , or
1 cup uncooked brown rice, or
1 cup uncooked wild rice, or
2 cups precooked that is prepared according to manufacturer’s directions
Vinegar, balsamic ½ cup ½ cup red wine vinegar (some flavor difference)

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Seasoning Substitution

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Ingredient Amount Substitute
All spice, ground 1 teaspoon ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon plus ½ teaspoon ground cloves
Apple pie spice 1 teaspoon ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon, ¼ teaspoon ground nutmeg plus 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom
Bay Leaf 1 whole ¼ teaspoon crushed bay leaf
Chives, chopped 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon chopped green onion tops
Dillweed, fresh or dried 3 heads 1 tablespoon dill seed Garlic 1
Garlic 1 small clove 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder, or minced dried garlic
Garlic Salt 1 teaspoon 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder plus 7/8 teaspoon salt
Ginger, crystallized 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Ginger, fresh, grated 1 tablespoon 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Ginger, ground Ginger, ground 1 tablespoon crystallized ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, and finely cut, or 1 tablespoon grated fresh ginger
Herbs, fresh, chopped 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon dried herbs, or ¼ teaspoon ground herbs
Horseradish, fresh grated 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons prepared horseradish
Mustard, dried 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
Onion powder 1 tablespoon 1 medium onion, chopped, or 1 tablespoon dried minced onion
Onion, chopped ¼ cup 1 tablespoon instant minced
Parsley, Dried 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon fresh parsley, chopped
Pimiento, chopped 2 tablespoons rehydrate 1 tablespoon dried sweet red pepper, or 2 to 3 tablespoons chopped fresh sweet red pepper
Pumpkin pie spice 1 teaspoon ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon, ¼ teaspoon ground ginger, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice plus 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg
Spearmint or Peppermint, dried 1 tablespoon 3 tablespoons chopped fresh mint
Vanilla bean 1 (1 inch) 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
Worcestershire sauce 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce

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